Modern browsers are gigantic affairs, designed to manage the remarkable variety of content available online, but also designed to do many more things, using a wide diversity of add-ons, scripting systems, plugins, revenue enhancement tools, and so on, ad infinitum. Now that wide bandwidth is more the rule than the exception, this makes some sense. But text-only browsers have been around for a quarter century (see Lynx, the oldest still being used), and they continue to be useful even in our ecosystem of browser behemoths.
I saw an item discussing the release of an up-to-date version of the WebbIE Web Browser 4, from the UK (see the download at https://www.webbie.org.uk/webbrowser/index.htm), and the notice reminded me of all the small niceties of using a web browser that only focuses on the text:
The browser runs very fast, even on slow connections.
You don’t have to worry about malware or popups carried in graphic content.
It’s really easy to print the text without having to also print every single graphic chunk that the content creator or the advertiser thought was Very Important for you to see. This is especially useful if you want to use a PDF converter print driver so that you can share the text without carrying along all the graphics.
The Webbie Browser works with free screen readers like NVDA and Thunder (a webbie application screen reader. See the overview and link at the end of the post).
You can do a basic access test on any website simply be comparing what you get in Webbie, and what’s on the screen. Such a test won’t cover all access issues, but it does give you some direct insight into what people who need to use text as the core of their web access are getting from the site.
If you have another good use for a text browser, put it in the comments to this post!
Webbie has a variety of other applications that are text focused and well-maintained. They include the WebbIE Web Browser, PDF Reader, RSS News Reader, Clock, Calendar, Podcatcher, BBC iPlayer Radio and TV programs, and BBC Live Radio. The apps require Net Client version 4, included with the installer.
Until recently, the general approach to paid leave as an accommodation was to allow or require it unless it reached the ADA threshold of an “undue burden”. For example, Federal ADA guidance suggests the following two-factor approach to this threshold:
“Undue burden means significant difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action would result in an undue burden, factors to be considered include —
(1) The nature and cost of the action needed under this part;
(2) The overall financial resources of the site or sites involved in the action; the number of persons employed at the site; the effect on expenses and resources; legitimate safety requirements that are necessary for safe operation, including crime prevention measures; or the impact otherwise of the action upon the operation of the site;”
In a case in the 7th Circuit, Severson v. Heartland Woodcraft, Inc., No. 15-3754 (7th Cir. Sept. 20, 2017 for Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin), the court’s decision set a much more specific standard, by saying that several months or an indeterminate length of paid leave would meet the “undue” threshold. Of course, this decision could be appealed, or other Federal Circuits could define this threshold differently. But, it is typical in civil rights law for relatively flexible standards to become more and more specific over time. This very ordinary evolution of law can be seen clearly in special education law and rules decisions, for example.
I think our community has to assume that over time, paid leave as an accommodation will become less and less flexible. We need to embrace approaches that introduce more flexibility in the use of paid leave, and which support more control by us in the use of it.
One way that has been around for a long time is to look at rehabilitation during paid leave less mechanically than, “You are on rehab leave until you are fully rehabilitated.” Individuals who have experienced a work-related injury receive their rehabilitation services at their work site, and even in the actual workstation, they used before the accident. PT and OT, for example, are provided focused on outcomes that are tied directly to what the person did prior to their injury.
Embracing the concept that accommodation should not be just passive support, but could be organized around a more flexible concept of “return-to-work”, Assistive Technology could be a resource for an at-work sequence of rebuilding the old job around the new reality of the disability. This kind of support could be implemented without making any assumptions about indeterminate accommodations or what might constitute the ultimate configuration of AT for a person as they reimagine how they might do their old job well. The person could work into a supported version of their job gradually, by learning to adapt and as the need for accommodation evolved during personal recovery. Customization, always a core of effective AT, could be expanded to include the expectation that the configuration of individual accommodations would change during recovery.
All my life, I have had a fine motor coordination problem with my hands. My cursive writing is illegible. When I was in Catholic elementary school the nuns made me practice my cursive for an hour every day for an entire school year before concluding that I simply couldn’t improve.
My printing is only somewhat better, and if I am in a hurry, it too is illegible. Even my signature shows symptoms of actual brain damage in that my repeated signatures have different numbers of strokes. Computers have been a godsend to me, though not without their problems, too.
I have always simply taken it for granted that I would have a tough time using my fingers for anything delicate. So, I wasn’t surprised when my use of a smartphone was plagued with misses and sliding finger taps, making my use of apps in general and smartphone typing systems in particular fraught with mistakes. I have to double-check everything, even content I have created many times before. I also have a terrible time using the same amount of pressure with my finger each time I do so, often producing no result or one that shows I pushed too long.
Entirely separately, I got tired of wiping the greasy finger marks off my smartphone every morning and decided I would try using a stylus to reduce the grime. I assumed I would have as much trouble with the stylus as I did with my fingers-maybe even more.
I was wrong.
There was a vast difference in the quality of my input when I used the stylus as compared with my finger. My error rate dropped very noticeably when I used the stylus, making my smartphone use more enjoyable and productive.
So, If you have trouble with fine motor tasks and it shows up on your smartphone, you might want to try a stylus too.
You can get styluses in bulk for about $.25 each or you can get better quality ones almost anywhere. The link below is to the Amazon page for styluses that show you the enormous variety and broad cost points for these products. Check to make sure your choice works with your device.
There is a universal design approach to handling the barriers of fall and winter, but the reality is that it requires real customization and thought long before the barrier appears. Since it is early fall, I thought I’d summarize the universal design approach before expanding the possibilities with a social support approach I ran across recently.
If you have the luxury of designing your home from scratch, you can do a lot to dramatically reduce the need for removal, and to prepare for the snow that will inevitably accumulate. Even if you rent in a high snow area, there are still things you can do:
“General Preparation And Supplies
Stock up on non-perishable food – high calorie is more efficient
Stock up on prescription and over-the-counter drugs
Stock-up on water; if an emergency is expected, fill up containers and bathtubs.
A first-aid emergency kit; supplement it with any special items you need.
Batteries (special ones for health gadgets too)
Battery powered radio; hand crank is good too.
Means for communication: Most phones today require electric to work; make sure you have an old, no-frills phone that needs no more than a basic phone land-line connection. Cell phones will work if you can keep them powered and if the service isn’t congested.
Blankets – plenty
Matches and/or lighters
Snow shovel, snow pusher, ice chipper or snow blower – smaller shovels lift less weight are easier on the back
Needed supplies in good working order – as if they might have to for 7-14 days.
I wish I didn’t have to add this, but in some cases this is important: have personal protection, something with which you can defend your home and protect your family should that become necessary.
Supplies for pet needs too.”
These recommendations are useful for any emergency loss of community travel and use.
You will need to customize your approach to removal as well. There are lots of options if you prepare, and almost none if you wait until the snow has fallen. Have your system in place long before flakes fall. I’ve included two core links for this issue below, but the blog that published those linked posts contains a wide variety of additional home-focused frameworks for successful accommodation.
Similarly, there are variations for other barrier and trash removal, though again they must be customized.
As an adjunct to universal design approaches, I describe below a framework which I believe would be an important enhancement to your preparation, based on a social support model.
I attended one of a series of the meetings for the creation of an Age-Friendly Plan for Lansing Michigan that included a discussion of how to manage the removal of snow, grasses, leaves, and trash. The discussion reminded me of the ongoing, seemingly insoluble social problem of such removal by persons with disabilities that make standard removal a problem.
There is a common set of barriers and practices in all municipalities and rural areas that make clearance of these barriers to movement for people with disabilities problematic:
Automatically devaluing the clearing of barriers if the beneficiaries of clearing are PWD
The use of fines and other sanctions if clearing is not done by PWD themselves. This often necessitates expenses by people who are already poor, sometimes at a premium cost since PWD “have no other choice” but to contract for private clearing or face fines.
The use of disability access parking spots and curb cuts as storage for large snowfall, on the assumption that PWD won’t be using them anyway.
Requiring self-transport of hazardous materials for annual collection when PWD can’t use any transportation to do this. This requires someone else to do it, and all the coordination that entails, or it requires ignoring the hazard.
And so on…..
These are all barriers that define removal as the total responsibility of the person who happens to have the barrier on their property, regardless of property ownership. This is true even when the “trash” is a tree that fell from city property onto private property, as occurred during the ice storm in 2013 in our local area.
The person on the private property was threatened with fines unless she removed it, something that was impossible because of her disability and her poverty. A solution was negotiated to resolve this, but the rules weren’t changed or modified to prevent this wrongful sanctioning in the future.
The proposal in the Age-Friendly workgroup (which I think is a good one) is to make support for such barrier removal a part of an integrated volunteer use system that would cover many neighborhood issues that are infrequent. This idea is one thread of a general proposal to make volunteering and volunteer work easier throughout the range of volunteer activities in the greater Lansing area.
I view such a proposal as a form of Assistive Social Technology (AST) in which community supports provide an ongoing solution to infrequent access issues, along with other neighborhood issues that are infrequent but need resolution. Potentially, there is both a digital/mobile aspect as well as the more obvious social one to such activity.
Such a “model” is already being done by some local people either through existing social relationships, spontaneous generosity, or deliberate local block organizing to assure that both older people and people with disabilities get support in removal. Rather than create an official program which will not change the low priority given to removal of barriers in a short term emergency, building a volunteer community effort where removal is a part of a general ongoing response to local need is a much better solution.
(I am going to try to develop the idea of AST for a future post.)
There is a small but growing movement among people with disabilities, engineers, students, families, and others who cherish personal independence and freedom of choice to take access to Assistive Technology (AT) to its next stage.
This is an opportunity for all of us to gain control over the tools we need to support ourselves in truly customized ways. It is just beginning, but this movement to control how we design, create and use AT is something we all need to embrace within our local communities.
About the ATMakers Movement
How does this initiative propose to accomplish an effective collaboration?
ATMakers.org is an experiment in solving problems in Assistive Technology using the skills and tools of the Maker community. In short, we’ve seen tools in the Open-Source Hardware and Software community that can be incredibly useful for people with severe physical and cognitive challenges – we’d like to help introduce these communities to each other.
Founded by Bill Binko, co-founder and principal technologist at LessonPix.com, we hope to provide descriptions and instructions that allow a community of Makers (for example a high-school robotics club or regulars at a MakerSpace) to build customized technology solutions for Assistive Technology Professionals and individuals whose lives would be enriched by them.
AT Makers sees the solution to access as needing local collaboration between people with science and engineering backgrounds, AT professionals, and users of AT. The immediate outcomes are building relationships between existing stakeholders:
STEM clubs & Robotics Teams
Complete service projects with our step-by-step guides
Apply your skills where they’re needed today
AT Professionals & Users
Find Makers in your area who can help
Learn about new technology you need
Makers & Engineers
Bring your skills to bear on today’s AT problems
Help mentor the next generation of AT Engineers
The Guides that ATMakers have developed involved straightforward projects that can be used to create ongoing collaboration around more sophisticated projects at larger scale. These guides can be found at http://atmakers.org/category/guides/ and include such ideas as:
How to get your AT pieces printed when you don’t have a 3D printer
Making 3D printed Switches
3D printed Camera Mounts
IOS Switch Controls on a budget using Bluetooth keyboards
An end-to-end video of how to make the Cariboo Adaptation
Connecting an AT switch as a PC keyboard for under $20
We don’t have to wait until some large medical manufacturer or medical supply system decides that our AT needs will produce enough revenue to warrant design and production. ATMakers says that we can do much of what we need by working together using community skills and lived experience to actually begin to customize what we need at a reasonable cost.
We have to become more conversant with the latest production and manufacturing technologies, and we have to find the people with the skills to help us make this real. These people are already in our high schools and elsewhere in our communities and they are already interested in taking on challenging new projects that will actually be of use in our community.
Time to reach out, learn together, and build what we need!
Amazon’s second generation Dash Wand is out. What potential does it have to support personal independence for members of our community?
The Wand is an example of the use of a technology platform (Amazon’s Echo/Alexa) to reduce the friction in accessing products of all kinds. While the technology is not specifically aimed at people with disabilities, it is usable by people with disabilities. It requires that each PWD examine how to adjust the platform’s capabilities to any specific need for personal accommodation.
In this sense, it is the same challenge that we always have in interacting with this world not designed for our use. But as technology tries to make everything easier to use, some possibilities are also opened up for our community.
I have been using the Wand with my Amazon Echo for some weeks now, and I will try to review some of those possibilities. Frankly, though, only actual use by members of our community will illuminate the real range of those possibilities.
You can activate Alexa, ask questions, make phone calls, listen to your favorite music, run your Fire TV, change your home’s environmental conditions, and so on by voice. Since you can be anywhere in your house when you do any of these things, some mobility and fine motor characteristics become immaterial in controlling a remarkable part of daily life.
The sheer number of skills available for the Echo (15,000 right now) means that you can probably find some to use if you can actually locate them in that disordered app universe of potential. I haven’t been able to find overviews of disability-friendly skills, but there are some in there, especially for making community access easier. This is much the same situation in the use of ride-share systems, where you can reduce the pain points of using public transportation with judicious choices.
There is a portable version of Echo, called the Tap, that can use any wi-fi system and has Bluetooth connectivity. It originally required pushing a button to access, but now has a hands-free method. Take it on trips, use it at work, etc.
The Echo dot is a relatively inexpensive small version that can be placed in any room in your house, linked to your wi-fi, and can be used for all the typical Echo uses, plus things like a local intercom for talking to others in the house.
The Wand’s biggest potential use is in purchasing products that you will use over and over. You will need to be a Prime member to make the best use, and that is $99 a year, a significant cost. The primary reason for choosing this is the two-day free shipping benefit and the ability to choose items as you notice your need for them with periodic shipping of the accumulated items.
The Wand itself allows you to use speech directly to order items that you wish to purchase. Speech ordering seems to work best with those items you order regularly. The other thing that the Wand can do is scan a barcode and place the item in your shopping cart on Amazon. You don’t have to have Amazon open at the time. In either case, the items will not be purchased until you go on Amazon and tell them to process the order. So, you can order items as you think of them and then regularly process the purchase.
I have not yet tried to scan a barcode in a store using my phone’s wifi hotspot yet, though I intend to try that. It would be easier to pick from alternatives in a market and then order that item repeatedly once I got it through Prime.
Not every item you might want will be delivered in two days, only those available through Amazon Prime. This reality has gotten me to change my preferred items to those covered by Prime.
There is also a system for delivering items you would use a lot and regularly. I have avoided using this because I don’t quite get how it works yet. It is called Prime Pantry, and if you order 5 items that qualify as part of a Prime Pantry Box, you get free shipping. I think the idea is to have regular orders delivered to your home that would ordinarily be the sort of thing you would get every week from a supermarket.
There are also other tools for ordering items through Amazon, such as Dash Buttons for products you know you will be using regularly. The buttons are on your home page making it easy to reorder. You can also subscribe to items when your use is very predictable, such as supplements (60 pills, two a day, order every 30 days). They will warn you when they are going to process the subscription and it is easy to change your subscriptions and Dash Buttons. If you choose enough qualifying subscriptions, you get a 15% discount.
These services are very different from the way I have purchased such items throughout my 70 years, but I have become used to the new choices, and I am beginning to understand their usefulness.
These services (at least to the extent that you don’t have to pay for shipping) would allow regular purchases without having to travel to get them. With the barriers to using public transportation and the cost of owning and running a vehicle, such an approach to repeated purchases could be very attractive. Also, with many mobility impairments, preparation for travel and managing grocery bags while using a wheelchair (for example) are wasted time that could be used for other activities.
Thus, such systems can be viewed as steps in expanding convenience and reducing the amount of time that the real ongoing lack of accessibility in American society imposes on our community.
Over the next couple of years, more systems like Echo and apps like Alexa will become more mature. For example, Google Home is rapidly developing as a hands-free voice activated system focused on much the same universe as Amazon’s. There will be more.
It is important that our community understands the abilities of such systems, and share our experiences. It is also important that our community begins to expand those skills used by such systems so that they more readily match our needs, through the development of these skills and apps by members of our community.
In the meantime, decide what you want such a system to do before deciding which one you will use. While all such systems will become more capable over time, the one you choose needs to support your life now even if you expect it will mean more to you in the future. Cost is obviously an important factor in picking a system as well. Costs will likely drop overall. But once you choose a system, you’ll be stuck with it for a while.
To summarize: The two big areas of use of such systems are your personal living situation and those community services which you now use or would use if it was easier to do so. Investigate and research.
And don’t forget to google “voice activated home systems reviews” every once in awhile to see what’s new.
In my last post, I tried to make the case that now is the time to disrupt special education because it has become rigid, compliance-driven, bureaucratic, and politically corrupted. In other words, the mission of special education as it was originally envisioned when it began in the 1970’s has been gradually parasitized by the interests of other groups besides the students whose educational benefit was the point of the law. To transform Special Education, we will need to truly innovate in ways that are stable and sustainable.
Any whole-system changes, like charter schools, however individually successful or unsuccessful they might be, absorb many of their assumptions about how education must be delivered from the current system. These remains of the old system doom such efforts to the same slow decline toward which public education as a whole is currently drifting. We need to think about how education should happen much more from scratch.
So, how should we frame our strategy for transformation?
Not just inclusion, but full integration of “regular” and “special” education. There is no organizational quality justification for the segregation of special education from regular education other than outside economic, political, and stigma-related interests. Certainly, students aren’t better off educationally. If the goals of education are the inclusion of all in American society, and the universal respect for individual difference, the continuing segregation of special education is a slap in the face to these very American values.
Making student-directed planning (SDP) the core of transformation. I am a member of a statewide advisory group focused on improving the education of students who are deaf-blind. There are roughly 300+ students who meet the criteria for this special education eligibility set of characteristics in Michigan and many county and local special education systems have only one or a handful of such students. Often the districts are at a loss about how to approach supporting the educational benefit of these individually unique students. A Federal program (DB Central at Central Michigan University) provides TA and facilitation support to local districts trying to build high-quality supports for their students who are deaf-blind. Their experience is instructive.
School districts prefer DB Central’s person-centered planning approach to the much more typical mind-numbing compliance-driven IEPC model. The districts, student, and family come away from the PCP experience with a consensus on support, and relationships that allow meaningful adjustment of the plan instead of conflict. This could be the reality for everyone in school if student driven planning and supports implementation was the center of a collaborative effort.
Universal Assistive Technology (UAT), embedded in student and family control, maximizing educational coordination, and connecting individual and student groups to the larger community. UAT would be based on supporting the customized learning of each student for each educational outcome. The celebration of Neurodiversity would be a universal as well since the evolution of the use of AT by each student would reflect that student’s particular neuro-developmental pattern in reaching personally useful cognitive/emotional outcomes.
This dimension of the framework for strategic educational change also means that schools will stop treating AT as a luxury for students and accept that student control over the use of AT and related technologies is a premise of educational benefit, not an opportunity to engage in power struggles.
All students will live in adulthood as part of a world in which every aspect of their lives is conditioned on the availability, access, and usability of AT and other related technologies. That is, we all use technology as (AT) support for our cognition and mood, all day and every day of our lives. It is criminal to deprive students in special education systems of the same necessary access to supportive technology that is now the birthright of everyone else.
In the same way that Accountable Community Organizations expand the universe of health care by distributing collaboration throughout the entire community to produce mutually reinforcing outcomes, so education needs to dramatically expand the scope of the concept of “wrap-around” to include everyone in the community who can contribute to the education of all of its students, including those now segregated into the “separate-but-equal” model of current special education practice.
This collaborative model also helps break down the “manufacturing” of education that produces graduates like Kellogg’s produces boxes of cereal.
We have the promise of such an approach in the current assumption that students who aren’t labeled are expected to participate in community experiences including many not sponsored by or paid for through school districts. Why should the expectations be different for students with educational disabilities?
Memoranda Of Understanding (MOU’s) are common methods of coordination across organizations and resources that pursue different, but complementary, outcomes. Such a system of community networking and mutual respect would help eliminate the factory model of education and promote those values that have always been the best that education could offer.
Happy 4th of July! Celebrate by thinking about how to expand freedom and choice for yourself and your community through AT.